White women born in parts of the United States where sexist attitudes are more prevalent grow up to earn less and to work less than women born elsewhere, relative to men born in those same states, new economic research shows. That impact on career and salary continues even if those women move to less sexist areas as adults, a finding that suggests the beliefs a woman grows up with can shape her future behavior in a way that affects her career and salary. The research, which will be released as a working paper on Monday from the economists Kerwin Kofi Charles of the University of Chicago, Jonathan Guryan of Northwestern University and Jessica Pan of National University of Singapore, highlights a continued divergence across the United States in social attitudes about the role of women in the work force. It shows how much location — where a woman is born and where she chooses to live as an adult — matters for her work and pay. A woman born in the Deep South is likely to face a much wider economic gender gap than a woman born on the Pacific Coast, the research shows, even if both women move to New York as adults. To make sure they were focusing only on gender, and not racial, discrimination, the researchers studied only white adults.
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Even though the first person to write an algorithm was a woman in the 19th century, artificial intelligence may now be discriminating against women. Two centuries on from the first example, algorithms "have the ability to push us back decades" in gender parity, explains Susan Leavy, a researcher at University College Dublin who is part of a project to prevent Artificial Intelligence algorithms from learning gender bias. Artificial Intelligence AI learns from data that is made available, and most of it is biased, says Leavy. The problem is that machines learn from data from the last 10 to 20 years which can unwittingly reproduce prejudices from the past. Moreover, without incorporating more recent social advances regarding gender and attitudes, the language and phraseology used in the data can perpetuate out-of-date stereotypes. For example, most AI hasn't heard about the global feminist movement MeToo or the Chilean anthem "a rapist in your path. And this bias in programming has an impact on the daily life of all women: from job searches to security checkpoints at airports. Ada Lovelace became the first programmer in history, a century before computers were invented. In the mid-nineteenth century, the British mathematician wrote what is considered to be the first algorithm for a computer machine devised by her colleague, scientist Charles Babbage.
Pioneers in the world of programming
Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender. Sexism can affect anyone, but it primarily affects women and girls. According to Fred R. Shapiro , the term "sexism" was most likely coined on November 18, , by Pauline M. Both the racist and the sexist are acting as if all that has happened had never happened, and both of them are making decisions and coming to conclusions about someone's value by referring to factors which are in both cases irrelevant.
Sexism Introduction Throughout history the rights women have gained are tremendous, on the other hand there are still many disadvantages to overcome. From country to country, the advances women have made vary greatly. In most nations women have obtained the right to vote. Despite efforts to equally pay men and women in the workplace, women make up nearly 70 percent of the worlds poor. Women remain at a disadvantage in education as well and women continue to make up more than two-thirds of students who drop out before completing the fourth grade, as well as making up for two-thirds of the worlds one billion illiterate adults. Each year the number of females entering into higher educational programs and universities increases greatly. Another great achievement for women is that of reproductive rights. In many nations abortions are legal and women have a wide variety of preventive measures, such as birth control. This achievement in many nations remains as a central continuing debate issue.